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Letters of Julia Louisa Lovejoy, 1856-1864, 4

Kansas Historical Quarterly, February 1948Part Four

by Louisa Lovejoy

February, 1948 (Vol. 16 No. 1), pages 40 to 75.
Transcribed by lhn;
digitized with permission of the Kansas State Historical Society.

SUMNER, K, T., January 1, 1859.

DEAR CENTRAL [104] :-. . . Our time is too limited this New Year's Eve to offer congratulations to thy numerous [newspaper] sisterhood, scattered, as they are, from the western hills to the Queen City, and the great Babylon of the Northwest, and on to the golden gates of the mighty Pacific and the mouths of the Columbia, but would like to give thee a formal introduction to a very promising "little one," that has just escaped from its crysalis up here in Kansas-whether prematurely or not, time will determine. This is not, we opine, a full grown butterfly, of ephemeral existence, but a full fledged "messenger bird," who will soar aloft on golden pinions, and when its death-shriek shall die away along the creeks and Kaw valley, may another, Phoenix-like arise from its ashes!
The "Kansas Messager" [105] is cradled in "Baldwin City," Kansas, the site of Baker University, and is rocked by a strong editorial corps, as far as numbers are concerned, and whether artificial stimulants will be necessary hereafter to promote its growth or perpetuate its existence, is a thought in embryo, arising from a contingency in the matter. It has only once made its appearance at our humble abode, and therefore we would not venture an opinion, only as far as the exterior is concerned-the type was fair, the name significant, and as there are different tastes to cater for, every reader must judge for himself, and not for his neighbor. Success to the "Messager," and may its shadow never be less, if it continues to bear the insignia of heaven.

And now, Mr. Editor, I want to say a word to you about the holidays in Sumner. Christmas is numbered with "the things that were," and Santa Claus, like the "priest and levite" of old, passed by our humble cot on the "other side," and never gave us a nod of recognition. Whether the merry old sprite thought the chimney too small for the ingress of his splendid retinue, or feared we sober Yankees might by the reflection of our elongated phiz, (in these "hard times, with Methodist minister's families in Kansas,")



frighten that "broad grin" into a metamorphosed expression, significant of facts, that might be revealed in cellar and larder, we leave your readers to determine!

We believe there has been a kind of holiday kept up by a part of the Sumnerites from Christmas until the winding up of the old year, for the firing of guns and other demonstrations of joy were heard until long past the solemn hour of midnight, when the old year uttered his last expiring groan, and we wrapped him in his shroud and laid him away in the tomb, whilst his funeral dirge was chanted by ----. Shall we pen anything so indecorous to such a solemn occasion by those who "tripped the light fantastic toe" to music's 'witching strains in the festive hall? The great absorbing idea that now moves the masses in Kansas is the "Pike's Peak" excitement, [106] whither many eager eyes are turned in prospective triumph! As you have as correct information, probably, as can be obtained, I'll barely refer [to] the matter, and direct those of your readers as desire further information to the "Lawrence Republican," Lawrence, Kansas, edited by the Messrs. THATCHERS, who are furnished with intelligence as reliable as can be found elsewhere. . . . We have formed a lodge of "Good Templars," which is in healthy working order, and doing a good work among a certain class as a kind of "John the Baptist," to prepare the way' . .



SUMNER, K. T., Jan. 6, 1859.

BRo. BROOKS [107] :-One of your correspondents inquires, "What is home without a baby?" Another, "What is home without a wife?" and still another, "What is home without Jesus?"

And now, with your permission, your humble correspondent, away up here on the Missouri river, would institute another inquiry, suggested by the loneliness of the hour, in this isolated spot, as the wind, in fitful gusts, is driving the sleet and snow through every crevice in our humble abode, and the writer and little Charley [Irving?], three years old, now snugly ensconced in "night-quarters," are the sole occupants of this "cottage on the bluff"-"What is home to a wife without a husband," especially the home of an itinerant minister of Jesus Christ, who, from the nature of his high and holy vocation, is necessarily away from his family the greater part of his time, i. e., if his field of labor is connected with large circuits, as in some of the older conferences, and now, in the frontier


work, as a pioneer-missionary? We know not how it has been with other minister's wives, who may con over these disconnected "thoughts of a lonely hour," but we have no doubt, had the days been fairly counted, that out of twenty-four years and more of married life, our home has been two-thirds of the time, on an average, "without a husband," and is it not strange, my dear sisters, ye honored wives of Christ's ambassadors, that after all the severe discipline in this matter, we are called to experience, as a "part of our portion for which we bargained," when we consented that our interests for this life should be identified with those of an itinerant minister; is it not strange, we repeat, that our homes cannot be "fixed up" to look attractively in our eyes, without our husbands to enjoy, mutually with us, all the little minutia for comfort in household arrangements? . . . And where can such perfect sympathy on earth be found as between those whom God hath made "one?" Then what would home be without a husband?

J. L. L.

SUMNER, K. T., Jan. 7, 1859.

MESSRS. EDITORS [108] :-Though just one week too late for New Year's holiday, yet we'll venture to wish all our old friends in the Granite State "a happy New Year" as was our custom in the days "of auld lang syne." You have doubtless ere this began to think us tardy in redeeming our "pledge," to "write occasionally for the Democrat." Numerous other duties pressing, and no small amount of matter as hindrance, in writing for four other periodicals must be our only apology. Now, then, to the weather, as that, we believe, is considered the all-important topic of discussion when friends meet after a long absence from each other. Old Boreas did his worst awhile in November to rouse every sluggish soul to action. He stalked forth in conscious majesty, in his ice-clad armor of mail, and called to his aid his allies, from every part of his wide-spread domain, and lo! they came, a mighty "troupe" rushing with a vengeance through that door left ajar by those fearless navigators at the North Pole, and many wry faces may be met in Kansas, at the remembrance of their freaks both serious and ludicrous on that memorable occasion. They built a bridge in one night across the Missouri River so that steamboats could neither pass nor repass-they so effectually cemented potato "patches" that many fields will be found already



planted in early spring, and time would fail to narrate their marvellous exploits in cupboard, and larder. But, for six weeks, old Sol has had it all his own way-he tore up the bridges on the streams so that boats could run again wherever they list, and what has seemed to us a phenomenon, numerous flocks of wild geese have been seen almost invariably bound in a Northern direction. The ground was as free from frost as in April or September. It seemed so singular to see the boats again on their regular trips, after laying up in snug winter quarters.

We see that the yellow fever mania has reached New Hampshire and we shall expect a strong delegation from that direction should we live until Spring opens. Let them come, the young men and the middle-aged, and come, too, prepared to manfully grapple with hardships incident to a camp-life, and not whine, and run home, at the first sight of a prairie-wolf, or corn-dodger smoking in the ashes! That there is much gold in Western Kansas, [109] not far from "Pike's Peak" along the Cherry Valley and the tributaries of the Platte and Arkansas, the united testimony of a multitude of witnesses goes to prove, and it is confidently expected by shrewd and sagacious men, that Western Kansas, in a year to come, will be as densely peopled as Eastern Kansas now is. Those who start for this Eldorado must either have means of their' own, or unite with those who have, to buy a team and "outfit" which they can do at Kansas City, Lawrence, or any place, probably, where they happen to land. Thousands probably from Eastern Kansas will go as soon as grass is up sufficiently for cattle, which will be about the middle of April usually. The spirit of enterprise has already laid out several towns in that region, and some already, (if the reports of correspondents on the ground can be relied on) have more "cabins," houses and "what not's" than some towns (on paper) in Eastern Kansas, where many an honest soul in New England has been gulled in buying "shares," and "corner lots." Those who wish for definite information in the matter, can send on two dollars, "to Messrs. Thatchers, Lawrence, Kansas," and they can have the "Lawrence Republican" sent to their address, for one year, than which, no other paper in Kansas that we wot of, can furnish more reliable information about the "gold region," for they have a correspondent on the ground. Let all who come, look for hardships of no ordinary character, for though we tried hard in New Hampshire to magnify what


we might pass through in pioneer life. Yet Our microscopic vision failed to make them quite as big as we have really and actually found realities. Nevertheless, there are many things connected with this "pioneering business" we love-'tis so novel and gypsy-like, this nomadic life, cooking out of doors, eating and sleeping in like manner; but the latter we never fell in love with, for an instinctive dread of serpents.

Your New Hampshire readers are well acquainted with the goahead-ative spirit of C. H. Lovejoy, and will not be surprised that he seriously thinks of volunteering as a missionary from Kansas Conference to that region, in the Spring, or to Utah, for the M. E. Church will have missionaries (and perhaps three or four at the next session of our Con. which is the 13th of April) at Pike's Peak and also at the "City of Saints," which is the modern Babylon! Won't it be a fine business to date letters from "Salt Lake" and write them in sight of Brigham Young's establishment and then superscribe them to New Hampshire! Ah! little know we what is in the future, concerning us, but if we act wisely the first step will be [to] devote all to God, then He will guide our footsteps right. . . .

Most respectfully,

SUMNER, K. T., Feb. 3, 1859.

BRo. HAVEN [110]: It would be a difficult matter to make you and your New England friends understand fully the pitch of excitement that matters have attained around us, for three or four days past; indeed, at no time during the whole bloody crusade of three years past, when that army with their blood-red flag was approaching our dwelling, did our feelings personally, and those of our family, reach that degree of intensity as for a few days past. It is not one half hour since we have felt relieved from almost overpowering anxiety by the news just brought to town.


We saw a notice in the "Herald" that $2,500 [111] had been offered for our champion's head; that was correct, and in addition, the Governor of Missouri has offered $3,000. Now this is a tempting bait, and of course large parties of pro-slavery men were on the look out in different localities to intercept Brown, as it was suspected he would elude pursuit and reach Iowa.


Messengers came into this town day before yesterday, with the tidings that the Marshal [J. P. Wood], and his posse had got on his track, and found he had taken possession of a log cabin on the prairie, about fifty miles from Sumner. This cabin he had strongly barricaded, and told his pursuers "he would never yield, neither would he be taken alive." The Marshal and his force surrounded the cabin and ordered Brown to "surrender!" Brown replied, "Come and take me." The officer dared not undertake the job, and one hundred more like him could not capture those indomitable spirits that well knew what would follow if they were taken prisoners. There were about a dozen "fugitives" with Brown, whom he had helped so far on the "underground railroad." These were well supplied with Sharpe's rifles; and also, the Marshal found twenty-five free State men acting as a kind of "body-guard" for Brown till he reached a place of safety.

"Look yonder on the prairie, Mr. Marshal, see that company of mounted men as they bear down toward the old cabin; twenty-five horsemen, armed men, in addition to Brown's body-guard! Take care, sir, if one gray hair on that venerable head is singed, your whole party will be riddled with balls!" Heralds were dispatched to Atchison, four miles from here, a strong pro-slavery town, for aid, whilst others watched the "burrow of the old fox," that he might not escape their clutches. It was then the news spread like fire down the river "that a large force had gone from Atchison, and took along two cannons to blow up the cabin (this was not quite correct) and the inmates," and two such nights of suspense as we have had here to know the result, we have never had even in Kansas. And, sir, for the first time the Spartan feeling was fully roused, and the writer of this begged of those dear as her own life "to hasten to the aid of the old hero, who had in so many instances periled his own life," and that of his noble sons, for the holy cause of freedom.

This noon we have received 'a "correct report" of the matter, as the United States troops camped last night a few miles out from Sumner on their return from pretended pursuit. The Atchison force returned with the Marshal to the "log cabin," (Brown's fort,) but no one dared to commence the attack. They then posted messengers after the United States troops at the fort, at Leavenworth. In the meantime Brown sallied forth and took three of the Atchison men prisoners [112] (one of them, it is affirmed, he recognized as the miscreant who shot his own son, F. Brown, at the "Ossawottamie


battle.") He also took four of their horses that they had secreted in the timber, and then with his freed slaves and party pulled for Iowa, taking prisoners and horses along with him! The troops came along last night to "Mount Pleasant," six miles from here, and refused to go only two miles farther, alleging as a reason "that they had only revolvers, and were not prepared for a fight;" and they knew Brown would fight like a tiger, and never yield alive. The truth is, sir, (and we had as lief whisper the matter so loud that the "old infirmary" may ring with the sound,) the troops are now so much imbued with free Stateism it would be difficult to draw them into the chase after a free State man, i. e., if they were convinced, as in the case of Brown, that he deserved his liberty. We fear now that Brown and his party will be intercepted by an overwhelming force, but he cannot be captured alive.

Last week a party of fugitives had fled from the land of bondage and stripes, and reached Lawrence. There the good Samaritans procured a team, hired a teamster, and Dr. [John] Doy, a member of our church, set off with the company on their way to Iowa. The pro-slavery men hired a spy for $500 to watch their movements and report, &c. [113] The team with fugitives passed over the country unmolested, not suspecting they were betrayed, crossed the Missouri River at Kickapoo, a few miles below Sumner; and when they had reached a convenient spot a company of men rushed upon them and seized the whole party, and conveyed them as prisoners to Weston, Mo. [114] The teamster was discharged on their being convinced that he was not an accessory in the plot-only hired to drive the horses; but Doy and his son were sentenced to be publicly whipped if they escaped with their life.

Mr. L. came home Saturday night from a "point" near Leavenworth, where he has been holding a series of religious meetings. Weston is on the opposite side of the Missouri River from Leavenworth. When Mr. L. left the excitement was intense at Leavenworth, and the people were threatening to raise a force sufficient to liberate Dr. Doy and son, but O the poor negroes! No doubt ere this their limbs are torn by cruel scourges; thank Heaven their bondage will not always last. They have lately found out that the underground railroad reaches ; but, Doctor, we must not tell how far, nor where the depots are located, for paid spies are on ev-


ery hand watching all our movements. News has just come that our other champion, "Jim Lane," sent a dispatch to Weston on this wise: "Dare to whip those prisoners, and you will be sure what next will follow." And another: "If they are not soon released, they will be by force." They have not yet, (as we learn today;) been either whipped or released, but the spirit of defiance is aroused in the free State men by insult beyond endurance, and the result time only can determine. They had a battle in Linn County last week, and eight are known to have been killed, and it is supposed a number more, and some others wounded. We hope these troubles will now be settled without further bloodshed. It is vexing to read in the New England papers about "Brown, Montgomery & Co.," when they have been driven by thefts and horrid murders to do as they have done.


MISSOURI RIVER, Feb. 3, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [115]:--As the "Herald" has been the "medium" through which "surprise gifts" of various kinds have been chronicled, we think it now no more than fair that one (as it is an isolated case in the Conference, as far as our knowledge extends the present year) should find room in the Herald, an acknowledgment from the most westernly Conference in the United States, save those on the Pacific Coast. Well, then, behold the missionary's wife, on the 3d day of Feb., 1859, as she sets off from her half-finished dwelling for the Post Office, three-quarters of a mile distant, leaving her husband, (not dressed in his canonicals in a comfortable study) but swinging his hammer with sturdy strokes, like "a workman that needeth not to be ashamed," for they find their only finished room, eight feet square, is becoming too strait for their accommodation, and the husband, instead of fixing up his family residence this winter, has been at work on another superstructure that has been going up, lo these 1800 years, and will never be completed until the last polished stone shall find its appropriate place! . . . Now, Doctor, could you have seen her as we saw her on the day aforesaid, with pail in hand, (to bring water on the return trip) humming a favorite hymn, as she threaded her devious way by a lonely by-path, through ravines and over bluffs, you would bless God for the freedom of the country, glad to escape from the ennui of city life. The mail matter was duly handed out by the officious clerk, and then a mysterious-look-


ing package. "What does this mean?" soliloquized she. It is postmarked Boston; but O, no matter if it does not tell me that father and mother are dead. I'll go over the bluff so far no one will see me, and then I'll see what it contains. The package was laid on the trunk of a fallen tree and solemnly unsealed, and it matters not how much she wept and prayed and got blessed there, for nobody was disturbed! The donor says, "write only one word in return, -"Received." The fair stranger will permit us to add, in her own words, "the work of her own hands." When those hands "forget their cunning" may the registry of a full list of good works be found in another Book, as she shall receive the crowning reward, "Well-done," is the prayer of


SUMNER, K. T., Feb. 28, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [116]:-Thinking your readers would like to know the sequel of Brown's late adventure, that terminated so abruptly in a late Herald, we hasten to lay before them the last advices. He took along his Atchison prisoners to the Nebraska line, or near it, and then held a mock trial in their case; every man expected to be hung, as he knew he richly deserved a high destiny for his participation in the affair; and after permitting them awhile to turn self- punishers, by harrowing up their fears, he set them all at liberty unharmed, with a piece of good advice about being caught in another such scrape, but sent them off without their horses. Some of them found a chance to ride part of the way, and all reached home in safety, loud in their praises of old "Brown's courage and generosity;" but, say they, "he is a monomaniac for freedom." They threaten to shoot Marshal Wood for drawing them into such a fix. A letter has been received from Brown, the purport of which is, that "he and his proteges had all reached Iowa in safety." "Freedom's Champion," published at Atchison, has some laughable things connected with the "battle of the spurs," as the facetious editor significantly calls the panic that seized the Atchison boys, who had come to assist the Marshal, when Brown sallied out of the log cabin, as a kind of greeting to the chivalrous knights. Every man who could, put spurs to his horse and fled for dear life, and some who had left their horses too far back to reach them in their haste, in the timber, for fear of having them stolen, took to their heels; and one poor fellow, frightened almost out of his wits, seized hold


of the caudal extremity of his comrade's horse, nearest to him, and away they went at a 2:40 speed, as though Lucifer himself had been close in the rear, while the editor says "he begged piteously to be taken up by his more fortunate neighbor." As soon as the balance of the party reached their horses, they threw themselves into their saddles, and every man looked out for himself! If you could at that moment have seen the lantern-jaws of the old outlaw, Mr. Editor, we know not but your ministerial gravity, for the time being, would have been greatly endangered.

Dr. Doy and son, after suffering the greatest indignities from the hands of a Missouri mob at Weston, having suffered maltreatment on their persons in the most shameful manner, were taken to a filthy jail in Platte City, and locked up in a loathsome place, that the Doctor in a letter says "is like a dark, small, filthy, iron cage, and no light allowed them but what they furnish from burning the fat from the pork which is allowed them for food." Their trial came off last Monday, when Mrs. Doy and her daughter went over, accompanied by Govs. Robinson and Shannon. [117] The Herald of Freedom came in last night, in which was the following notice: "They would have been set at liberty but for fear of the mob, who were ready to take the matter into their own hands." They are remanded back to prison, but the probability is that by some means they will soon be restored to their family. [118]

We can now give definite information concerning the kidnapped and the kidnappers. The party were captured not far from Oskaloosa; the teamster was the son of Rev. Mace Clough, formerly of the Maine Conference; the captors were pro-slavery men, and among them Dr. Garvin, our postmaster at Lawrence; Mr. Whitley, formerly of Boston, and Jake Hurd, a drunken fellow. The fugitives were well armed, but the white men surrendered at the first fire. Now about the negroes: two of them (the colored men) were free, [119] one was a bright mulatto girl, Katharine, aged we should judge 27 or 28, belonging to Mr. West, of Kansas City, a very respectable merchant. We knew this girl, and want to give a bit of


her history for the benefit of some of the divines in the M. E. Church, who think lightly of the "peculiar institution," and its effects! On our way into the Territory in the spring of 1855, we left the American Hotel on account of sickness, where we had been stopping some time, and I went with my sick daughters to board in this family, as Mrs. West was a member of the Methodist Church, and considered by the people a woman of more than ordinary piety; and I think I have never found an individual under the influence of Southern principles who seemed to possess in a greater degree the spirit of true piety. The family were formerly from Virginia, and brought along this Katharine, (and her sister, older than herself,) as house-slaves, to do the housework for the family. I was conversing with Mrs. West one day about my own views of slavery, and then inquired of her if they would sell either of those women, or the little toddling quadroon of a child belonging to one of the slave women whom Mrs. West had just been kissing and playfully caressing. "Sell them 1" she replied, "nothing would tempt us to part with them; they were brought up with me from childhood in Virginia; their mother belonged to my father for many years." Of course we did not inquire, (as Yankees are usually accused of doing,) concerning their paternity; that would have been impertinent! We sometimes indulge in mental guessing, and then nobody is harmed if these thoughts are not expressed. We often conversed with these slaves, who were not permitted to learn the alphabet; they had been taught strange ideas about free people at the North -their miserable condition, save a privileged few, and they of the upper strata of society. By associating with Northern people for three years past, or by some other means, this Katharine found out there was something desirable in liberty of person, and through some channel, we know not how, found herself at Lawrence, and on board the ill-fated team, fleeing in the direction of the North Star, when they were all seized and conveyed, as we have hereto fore said, to Weston, Mo., and then put in irons! We saw the Sioux City when she passed up the Missouri River, plowing her way through floating ice; and when she reached Weston, on her downward trip, these slaves, Katharine among the rest, were all put on board and sent off to the Georgia market, save the two free negroes from Pennsylvania and Ohio, whom Jake Hurd seized in prison and whipped shockingly in presence of Dr. Doy, and then thrust them into a covered carriage and drove them, none of us can tell whither -probably where they never can return to tell the story of their


wrongs! They were born free, were never in slavery, and had been waiters in a hotel in Lawrence for some time past. How they first ventured to Kansas is more than we can tell. We inquired of Mrs. West, "if there was no danger in the event of the death of Mr. West, with regard to the estate being divided amongst the heirs, and these sisters being sold and separated." "Why," said she, "my children have been brought up with them, and not one would part with them." Now we inquire, "what must be the feelings of a Northern lady, and she a member of the church, when she went into her closet or the class room, or knelt at the sacramental board, to reflect that one they had been brought up with, had played with from childhood, was doomed to toil in the rice swamps, with her flesh torn by cruel scourges, or what is a thousand times worse, as in the case of one, "smart and good-looking" like Katharine, our pen cannot express the indignant feelings of our heart at the thought! Mr. West very piously craved a blessing on our food at the table, and seemed a true specimen of Southern piety l We always hated slavery, but since we have been brought face to face with the accursed demon, and seen its fruits, our hatred knows no bounds; and, sir, there is a fearful responsibility resting on the heads of some ministers in "high places" in the M. E. Church; and for the price of a thousand worlds, with all their emoluments and good opinions, we would not assume that responsibility. God is my witness, as much as I love the church of my choice, with which my humble name has stood connected since the autumn of 1828, unless some measures are adopted at the next General Conference to rid the church of this "sum of all villanies," I, as an individual, though isolated and alone, could not or cannot, with a clear conscience, in view of my relation to God and my fellow-fellow creatures, longer remain within her pale. I speak this after due reflection, and none else is responsible for what I write.

And now in all plainness of speech, I wish to tell our New England friends what occurred a few weeks since in the history of one who has been a loyal member of the M. E. Church since 1828, and loyal minister within her pale for thirty years, traveled some of the hardest circuits, and in no one instance has received but a trifle over $300 for the support of his family for a year. This man wrote a letter to our official organ at New York, the purport of which was, "that he feared the editors for some cause had received a wrong impression about the Kansas preachers, then told in very mild lan-


guage some of the sacrifices of comfort each was compelled to undergo, preaching and sleeping in log cabins, often without a window, shut up with a lot of (often) filthy, noisy children, &c., and they would generally the present year be deficient from $150 to $200 in their salary, and wound up with speaking about some `mercy drops' that had fallen on his charge." In the same letter was a "marriage notice," and also "one subscriber" for the Christian Advocate and Journal. These latter notices appeared in due time, but not one word of the letter aforesaid, and there could be no other reason only the tincture of anti-slaveryism in the proscribed letter. If these things are suffered to continue much longer one thing is certain, there will be more than one disaffected member.

The report of the threatened collision between the United States troops and "Saints," that we copied from two different papers, said to be Government dispatches, we think will prove to be a hoax, got up for political effect, for the Salt Lake mail does not bring such intelligence. A number of boats have come up the river loaded with freight and passengers for the mines. One company design to start next week. The weather is as warm as April, and even May in New England, but grass has not yet made its appearance. The Lawrence Republican of last week says, "they have received intelligence that nine boats are now on their way coming up the Missouri River, loaded with freight and families for the mines." We hope they may find their expectations realized. An amnesty bill was put through the Legislature the last day of its sitting, by which the troubles in Southern Kansas were fully adjusted and all former difficulties amicably settled, so that we may look for no more war in Linn and Bourbon Counties.


P. S.-The Hannibal and St. Joseph Railroad was completed last Tuesday, so that the cars brought in so many emigrants for the mines that the St. Joseph Weekly says "every hotel is crowded from basement to dome." They are rapidly completing it from St. Joseph to Atchison, twenty miles down the river, which will bring it within, four miles of our door in Sumner, and these few miles only will intervene; and what a stretch of rails! Had we the means at our command when this road is completed, we might take the cars at Atchison, and travel 2,000 miles nearly by railroad to the very neighborhood of our birth, and land near the family mansion in Lebanon, N. H., in the same homestead in which we were born,


where our dear parents are now waiting patiently to pass over the River. Heaven grant them a safe and joyful passage, is the prayer of their exiled daughter.

J. L. L.

SUMNER, K. T., March 3, 1859.

BRo. HAVEN [120]:-I told you in my last that I did not intend to write again until after the session of our Conference, the 13th of April,"unless something of an extraordinary character occurred;" but letters making inquiries about the mines, that I cannot well find time to answer, as Mr. L. is absent from home much of the time, and cannot consequently answer them himself, are coming in, and seem to demand, from the writers, who are members of the M. E. Church and readers of the Herald, an answer through this medium. Let all come first to Chicago, thence to Hannibal, Mo., and thence directly across the State of Missouri, to St. Joseph. Then if they wish, they can come by stage down the River, 20 miles, to Atchison, and buy their team and outfit, or purchase these at St. Joseph, and start for the Mountains from St. Joseph. Either route will constantly be lined with teams for months to come, if not the whole year. A number had better put their means together and buy two or three yoke of oxen and wagon, and provisions sufficient for six months; for it seems more likely to us that there will be a greater famine for bread, from the crowds that are already arriving, than for gold! A yoke of oxen will cost from $75 to $100, a covered wagon about $75. A line of stages is to be run twice a month from Atchison to Pike's Peak during the summer; but we advise every one to go with his own team, eat and sleep in his wagon, and then his expenses on the road will be but a trifle, and his team, we are told, will bring as much when he arrives there, as it costs him here. A good cow driven along would be a valuable acquisition. The price of a cow ranges from $25 to $30. Cattle outfit, and all that will be necessary to purchase can be had, probably, at any point where an emigrant happens to land. The old route, via St. Louis, and then up the River by steamboat, is far more expensive than the present route, all the way from Boston to St. Joseph, Mo., by railroad. The boats are running lively on the River now, and we have not a doubt but within a year to come, there will be 100,000 in Western Kansas, the new Eldorado. Accounts of the most flattering character are being received from the


mines almost every week. Some from Oskaloosa, where Mr. Lovejoy was pastor last year, went there, and were so well satisfied they remained long enough to get themselves "claims," build themselves a cabin for the reception of their families, and come back after the loved ones, to return to the mines about the first of April. That region is said to be a fine farming region, with large forests of pine timber; and the streams from the mountains clear and cold, filled with various kinds of fish, amongst which are the speckled trout. The land can be taken for farms, and pre-empted when it comes into market.

As many of our friends seem to be anxious to learn something of the matter, I would take this opportunity to say that it is quite likely that Mr. Lovejoy will be appointed by the Kansas Conference a missionary to that region, provided that two or three energetic young men will accompany him; they will not go as "gold diggers," but to tell the thousands there of that "better land." I do not think of any more questions to answer, and if I did my hand is too tired to write much longer, as this is the fourth sheet I have written over without stopping to rest much. If there are questions still unanswered, why let all who desire make further inquiries. A triweekly mail is to run a part of the way to the mines, so that letters can be sent to the States about as readily as now. If Mr. L. is not appointed a missionary to Pike's Peak, he will probably remain here for a year to come, so this place will still be our address as formerly.

In haste,

P. S.-If any persons come up the River they can buy their team and outfit at Kansas City, Lawrence or Leavenworth, and then go via Manhattan and up the Smoky Hill, or Republican Fork. The distance from the Missouri River to the mines is about 600 miles. It takes from four to six weeks' time to go with an ox team; inhabitants 150 miles on the route.

No danger from the Indians.

SUMNER, K. T., March 4, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [121]:-We have noticed an article going the rounds of the New England papers intended as a slur on the M. E. Church for admitting Mr. Lane to its membership. The facts are these: When Mr. Lovejoy was stationed in Lawrence, two years since, Col. Lane requested to join the class on probation, and stated his reasons publicly for so doing. He said he desired to be a Christian, and out of respect to the wishes of a dying, godly mother, who with her lips


quivering in death, requested him to seek God and become a member of the M. E. Church, which he solemnly promised to do. Since the unfortunate affair with Col. Jenkins [see Kansas Historical Quarterly, v. 15, pp. 386, 387], which has been clearly shown was in self-defense, Col. Lane has professed conversion, and his pastor, Rev. I. Dodge, formerly of the Genesee Conference, thinks lie gives full and conclusive evidence, in his family and elsewhere, that he has "passed from death unto life." His lady has for many years been a devoted Methodist.

Our New England friends, no doubt, think by this time that the cognomen, "Old

John Brown," should be changed to "Brown, the Invincible;" and though now probably quietly on his farm somewhere, we believe, in the Empire State, yet of one thing you may be quite sure, if you hear of any more trouble in Kansas, there is such a tendency to ubiquity about him, like another distinguished personage "walking to and fro in the earth," he will no doubt be found in the "thickest heat of the fray," dealing telling strokes somewhere. In the memorable "Ossawatomie battle," when the last man was either killed or had fled, and his own son, Frederick, had just been slain by the hand of (Rev.) Martin White, the old hero was seen leisurely wading a creek, with a rifle under each arm and the enemy close in the rear; and when the opposite bank was gained you may be sure a shower of leaden hail was poured without measure amongst the ranks of his pursuers.

Our friends may wonder that the warlike spirit has taken such hold upon those who, until they came to Kansas, were as complete non-resistants as the most orthodox Quaker; but, sir, such individuals only need a little Kansas experience to understand the matter.

We would say to all interested in the matter, that a steam sawmill is now crossing the country, designed for Pike's Peak, and also a printing press. If any are deceived with regard to the prolific yield of the mines, we, too, are deceived, for we have no personal knowledge, only as we depend on the united testimony of scores who are there, or who have been there. The mines are said to stretch along 500 miles to the "black hills" on the north. We need not caution a "live Yankee" to look out for sharpers on the road, and look well after his luggage, but we know at Kansas City and other Places thousands of dollars were taken (in the spring of '55) from honest New Englanders, for a want of knowledge of some matters, with regard to board and purchase of teams, &c. Good board in private families ought to be procured for three dollars and a half


per week, whilst hotel keepers will run up a bill from seven to fourteen dollars per week, and perhaps exceed even that. If we were to pass through the ordeal again, we would buy our own provisions, as there is plenty usually ready cooked at the bakery, and hire lodgings, or procure a covered wagon immediately, with blankets and mattrass, and cook our own food, and it is sufficiently comfortable. We write this for the benefit of those who may not abound in money, for we know a poor crushed heart, with no husband or son near to protect, who scarce could find a privilege to spread a mattrass of her own on a filthy floor for a dying child, and even a quarter of a dollar was charged for that privilege on the road, when her purse was running low!


SUMNER, K. T., April 18, 1859.

BRO. HAVEN [122] :-. . . I have thought of late, our dear brethren with whom we have formerly associated, may think because our letters savor of "wars and rumors of wars," that we have lost ground spiritually in Kansas. This is not the case; but the past year, although it has been the hardest financially we have ever found, yet there has been, (to the praise of God we would say it,) a constant increase of grace and the fruits of the Spirit. There is far more meaning in "hard times" than the deficiency in the salaries of the "Kansas preachers" the present year, though that is not a small item. None of us were expecting this financial crash, and consequent depression of property that has ruined so many men in the West this year, who were comparatively wealthy; and some who were owing heavy debts previous to the "hard times," have been, and are still paying 50, 40, 30, &c. per cent, to save their property from a sheriff's sale. This is what has constituted the "hard times" in more than one household; but we will not particularize. The promise is sure: "All things shall work together for good to those who love the Lord." When Mr. L. filled up his receipts for Conference, he found he had received in missionary appropriation and every other item, something over $300-I cannot recollect how much. Now three hundred in Kansas will not go as far as two hundred in New England, and a preacher must run in debt and build a shelter for his family entirely on his own responsibility, unaided. We hope for "better days" in temporal matters another year. I am looking


for every boat bound down the river for the preachers, with Mr. Lovejoy, returning from Conference at Omaha; I am anxious to learn our appointment.


"SYLVAN COTTAGE," May 10, 1859.

FOR THE GAZETTE [123] :-Sumner is situated in the "Great bend" of the Missouri river, 20 miles above Leavenworth, and about 40 from Kansas city, Mo. There was but one cabin a little more than one year and a half ago, and now there are over 200 houses, and about 800 inhabitants who have homes in Sumner, though many have been leaving this Spring to engage in various pursuits on account of the scarcity of money in circulation which has seriously injured the growth and prosperity of the most promising towns in Kansas. Sumner is built on a succession of bluffs that stretch back from the river, that gives the place a peculiarly unique, (but to us pleasing) appearance. Between these bluffs, living springs gush out, forming rivulets of clear pure water, some of which are nearly as cold as ice-water. Many of the residences are perched on dizzy heights, on the verge of precipitous declivities, interspersed with forest trees, that give the town a rural and romantic aspect. "Sylvan Cottage," the spot from which we write, is situated in a quiet and secluded nook, remote from the heart of the town, on a bluff, covered with beautiful trees and shrubbery planted by the Almighty's Hand, overlooking the murky waters of the "mad Missouri," that roll more than 100 feet below, and lave its base; on whose dark bosom is borne, steam-boats of mammoth dimensions, engaged in extensive inland commerce. If any into whose hands this paper may fall, are looking Kansas-ward for a home, we most cordially invite them to give Sumner a call first, for many reasons. We know of no other locality in Kansas, (and we have become acquainted somewhat extensively) more healthy, and the citizens are a quiet, orderly people, disposed to be sympathetic and kindhearted to all. The gospel is regularly dispensed, from Sabbath to Sabbath, and Sabbath school and temperance organization are flourishing finely. There are two schools in constant operation; one taught by a lady, and the other by our estimable citizen, Rev. Daniel Foster, [124] who was formerly engaged as a teacher in N. E. and who also is pastor of a church. There are physicians, a drug


store, dry goods and groceries, carriage shops, one printing office, and finally everything in that line to render the location a desirable one, save a little more of the "circulating medium" is necessary to remove the friction in machinery and unclog the wheels! Another inducement held out as a beacon to beckon emigrants in this direction, is the money market, is so stringent at the present writing in Kansas, that shares and lots in Sumner can be bought on easier terms than heretofore, because some of the owners need to make an early sale to procure money for other purposes.-Now is the time to make an investment in Sumner and procure an inviting home in Kansas, the universally-acknowledged "garden of the western world."


SUMNER, K. T., May 26, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [125] :-Of all the unaccountable things that occur in these days of unaccountable things, that about the mines is to us the most inexplicable; so that we, only 600 miles therefrom, can tell nothing more reliable, on account of conflicting reports, than your readers, who are 2,000 miles away. Five different companies have left Sumner at different times, until not enough men were left to defend the garrison; (in case of an invasion, which no one expects,) two companies are still en route to the mines, as far as we know.

One party had been absent. about two weeks, and got as far as the Big Blue, and Sabbath day they drove into town, crest-fallen enough; having met so many miners returning with discouraging reports, they turned back, after expending a number of hundred dollars. Another party left Sumner a little over a week ago, with several thousand dollars, worth of goods, for Pike's Peak, and reached Grasshopper Creek, (this creek empties into the Kansas River, and that into the Missouri, about 25 miles from this place,) when one of their company, Mr. Joslin, of Waitsfield, Vt., in a high state of perspiration, went in to bathe, and sunk to rise no more! Seldom does it fall to the lot of any to chronicle a death so universally lamented; his party halted a half day to search for his body, but without effect, and then with sad hearts proceeded on their journey, sending back his clothes to Sumner by a messenger. He left town on Friday, and was drowned on the following Thursday.

When the mournful intelligence reached here, a meeting was called by the citizens, and seven men were immediately dispatched


to search still further for the remains; they raked the creek for miles with hooks, but all in vain. The water was thought to be 15 or 20 feet deep when he went in to bathe, and when the men reached there to look for his body, it had fallen eight feet! So rapidly do the creeks of Kansas rise and fall.

He was an only son, about 24 years of age, and a more lovely young man in moral integrity of character never trod the soil of Kansas; active in Sabbath school, in the cause of temperance and benevolence; and indeed he had won all hearts by his amiability during nearly a year's residence in this community. His funeral services are to be attended next Sabbath, and the whole community will be present as mourners. The name of T. A. Joslin, and his sad fate, trembles on every lip and his manly virtues will long be remembered in Sumner. His party passed on a few days, and were so disheartened at his death, every man returned to Sumner; some talk of setting out again.

Rev. Wm. H. Goode, the oldest preacher in the Kansas and Nebraska Conference, save Dr. Still, received his appointment for Oreapolis, the seat of the projected University and Biblical Institute, but from some new turn of affairs, followed on after Bishop Scott, whom he reached at St. Joseph, Mo., and requested to be sent to the Eastern slope of the Rocky Mountains, to form a mission, to which proposal the Bishop acceded, and placed funds in his hands to establish such a mission. He is now probably nearly half way to his destination, if he does not turn back, like others who have preceded him.

Reports have come to town that the enraged miners have hung the Post Master at Denver City, on Cherry Creek, for taking letters from the Post Office mailed by men at the mines to their families and friends in the States, giving a truthful representation of matters, and substituting in their place the most glowing falsehoods to attract men thither, and rumor says, also, they have burned every house in the City, of which there were several hundreds, and yet crowds are still going there. A. D. Richardson, correspondent of the Boston Journal, our neighbor, started from here yesterday. We cannot explain these matters. We always write things just as they are, to the best of our knowledge, and if we afterwards learn that we are misinformed, we invariably send a correction, if the affair is of any moment.



SYLVAN COTTAGE, SUMNER, K. T., July 5th, 1859.

MESSRS. EDITORS [126] :-Yesterday was a gala day in this city, the immortal fourth was ushered in by the booming of cannon, and peal after peal of minute guns, that kept up one continuous colloquy with each other, striving for the highest key-note in the music, greatly to the discomfort of those who were disposed to indulge in a morning nap.-And, as though this din of firearms, from the Sumnerites, was not enough to frighten the last vision of Morpheus from the place, causing him to up-set his Lethean glass, in his flight to the hills, up comes the "Hesperean," "stars and stripes" floating gaily from her most conspicuous points, and after rounding to, gave us a deafening broad-side, that shook our frail domicile to the very foundation. Not one of the "Sumner boys" was caught napping at this unceremonious salute, but bade their spunky little howitzer to "do his best, and for once show off to good advantage," greatly to the discredit of all weak-lunged aspirants, who should hereafter assay to tread in his illustrious footsteps.

At an early hour, the people "enmasse," wended their way toward a beautiful grove, just beyond the limits of the town, where the clergymen of the place, Rev. D. Foster and C. H. Lovejoy mutually participated in the interesting exercises, which consisted in prayer, music, and oration by Rev. D. Foster.

We digress one moment. These ministers of the new Testament, thirty years ago, might have been seen trudging along with dinner basket in hand, the same road, to the same antique schoolhouse, among the hills of Hanover, N. H., to acquire the first elements of science; and who then would have predicted, that both would have been pastors of churches, in the same city, on the plains of what is now Kansas, then "the great American desert, inhabited by buffaloes and Indians?" Their religious sentiments are widely diverse, but no two brothers, of the same church, or natural brothers by consanguinity, could ever labor together in greater unanimity and harmony than they have for the year past.

The sentiments embodied in the "declaration of Independence" were the key notes of the oration, and this clause, "all men are created free and equal," was dwelt upon with peculiar stress, and tacked on to the conscience by heated nails, in the form of matter-of-fact, illustrated by scathing anecdotes. One was related about his old class-mate at Dartmouth College, a full blooded "nigger,"


and the eloquent speaker held him up before the audience so lifelike that nigger-owners, with their families, of which there were a number on the ground, scrambled into their carriages, and made for the highways as fast as possible, and out of the hearing of that "ranting abolitionist."-The other clerical gentleman, who sat directly behind me, on that rustic "stand," clapped his hands to cheer him on as he was throwing down one obstruction after another to clog the wheels of the pseudo-democracy of the present day, and felt "Amen," in his heart as full and sonorous as he ever felt at a Methodist camp meeting. That "abolition speech" will long be remembered in Sumner, for it was so full of strength and vitality it stirred up the whole viper's nest, and curses loud were heard on every hand. Even before it was concluded loud talking, and indeed gymnastic exercises disturbed the decorum of the place.

The surrounding trees were tastefully decorated with a profusion of banners, bearing the National "insignia," and the "negro-waiter" so patiently trudging at the heels of his haughty mistress, lugging along that chubby specimen of humanity in his brawny arms, seemed to us to look up and say, "What is all this show to me? The `stripes' on the flag, I know how to decypher-would that I had never been born-this galling servitude, must it last forever?"

Our "cold collation," on the grass in "picnic" style, was good enough to satisfy the most fastidious taste of a hungry bachelor editor, who had been dieting for a month on Graham bread, and sage-tea. This "feast of fat things," being duly disposed of, then came the calisthenic and turnerverean exercises, a programme of which was brought by the Germans from "fader-land." Their feats would absolutely confound and astonish a gazer-on, and none but the "initiated" can tell why or wherefore. We never supposed it possible for a human being, by long practice, to obtain such skill in leaping to such prodigious heights, swinging with feet suspended high in air, head downwards, and anon a company of men instantaneously throwing themselves into a pyramidical figure, one above another. On one part of the ground might have been seen a company "tripping the light fantastic toe," to music's witching strains in the mazy dance; but we, sober folks, preferred the quiet of our tidy little sitting-room at home, to the rounds of joy and mirth that resounded through the festive grove, and turned our steps thither ward. Among the toasts offered on the occasion, were the following, of the humorous sort.


The Editors of Kansas: by a lady-May they not deal too freely in "soft soap," the chief ingredient of which, is L-Y-E,-pronounced Lie!
The Ladies of Kansas: by one of the Sisterhood; Courageous in danger, prudent and discreet, may their virtues and graces still continue to be the light and joy of the "Prairie Lodge."
The Lawyers of Kansas: By a lady.-May they not be unmindful of the first pleas of their Great Prototype, by which a case was won by falsehood and a world ruined.
The Pilferers of Pork-barrels, and Robbers of Hen-roosts: by a Sufferer.May they never cease to be disturbed in their nocturnal slumbers by the squeal of a pig, or the peep of an unfledged chicken, till they betake themselves to more honorable employment.
The Bachelors of Kansas: by a matron-Hesitating and faltering, a set of crusty old fellows, who choose to go limping along the path of life, in consequence of a missing rib.-May it ere long find its appropriate place.

The weather is oppressive in the extreme-thermometer has been 94°, but good breezes to temper and make it endurable. Steam boat, "Perry," came up a few days since, literally black with human beings, bound for the 'mines'-Our neighbors start in a few days"lots" of them-it is folly to start this hot weather-many are now going, who returned from there in the Spring, cursing the whole concern! Poor human "natur."


SYLVAN COTTAGE, SUMNER, K. T., July 13, 1859.


Mr. Lovejoy returned from the P. O. about an hour ago, bringing your letter, with ten dollars in it, and I have got my crying over, sufficiently to answer it. It is now one o'clock, in the P. M. and at two, there is a female prayer-meeting appointed here, so I must hasten. I was intending to write you all, in a few days, to sell every farm, even at a sacrifice, and get ready to come to Kansas, in the fall, before land rises again, so that you cannot get hold of it, as it certainly will, another year. See my two letters in the Independent Dem. and also one in the Dover "Morning Star," all written within a few days, and you will learn my reasons. The accounts from the mines, with regard to their prolific yield, is almost fabulous, it is so astonishing, tho authenticated by those whose veracity cannot be questioned. Our neighbor, [Albert D.] Richardson, who went there, with Horace Greeley, came from there, in the Express, clear thro in seven days, and has gone on to Cincinnati, after his wife, who is there on a visit, and is going right back to the mines with his family. There are three teams fitting out today, on


our Levee, to start immediately, and the fourth may go, with an immense quantity of goods for the miners. Mr. Richardson says thousands are rushing in there daily and starvation will tread on the heels of new opening deposits, notwithstanding the tens of thousands of gold, they are taking out. I don't want any of my folks from N. E. to go there this season, to die with cholera on the road, this terrible hot weather, but I do want every man, woman, and child, that claims kin with the Hardy-family and can ride in the cars, to get ready to come here in the fall, and get themselves farms. Mr. L. can now get you 160 acres of the best land within 6 or 8 miles of the Mo. River, the best market in the U. S. at from five to 800 dollars and one year from now, twill bring thousands, instead of hundreds, there is no doubt as soon as money begins to be more plenty. It can be bought for half nearly, what it could be last year. I state these matters, for the benefit of the entire family; now all do as you please. We are now in the midst of luxuries. Now war is over forever in Kansas, she begins to show herself to advantage and excells every state in the Union, Missouri excepted. We have this year's chickens, till I am sick of them, for our table, after starving so long on corn dodgers, pancakes, and bacon, and have about an hundred more, for somebody to devour! New potatoes, green corn, shelled beans, squash, peas, cucumbers, beets, and there are blackberries, enough in the grove around our dwelling, to load a cart with, we don't doubt. Do Sarah [127] write immediately, and tell me how you all used to fix them so as they would keep without preserving them, as you do strawberries. I preserved so many of them last year I have now a great many left and we don't like them so. Sarah, there is not one button, or patch off of anything in my gem of a Cottage, and within less than a week, I have sent to the press at St. Louis, Cleveland, Ohio, and Baldwin City ten communications, and every thing around me, is as tidy as a Shaker-establishment nothing neglected. I killed a rattlesnake with ten rattles, near my door-step, but Dr. Haven, thinks it too unlady-like, to conquer such formidable "sarpents" so he thinks it not judicious to insert it in the "Herald." Rev. Mr. Miller, from Leavenworth City, sent here a German Missionary from Ohio, saw my paper and other writings, and came here Monday and engaged me to write for their church organ, the "Evangelical Messenger," published both in the German and English language, at Cleveland, Ohio, and for two columns, for each issue, he is to give me two dollars, and I hope I shall be able


to pick up enough to be able if I live, and all are well, to be able to start near the first of Sept. for N. H. so as to be back to Kansas, sometime in November if I live and I want as many as can to come back with me. Mr. Lovejoy is a perfect child, about having me going without him, but he can't go, and says "I may do as I please." His circuit extends fifty miles on and near the Missouri River and work enough for a dozen men. Colby must calculate to come here and labor with him next winter. They will feed him up to the eyes this prolific year. There is such an immense amount of stuff raised, but if he should get a nine pence in silver he would make a long mark, it would be so strange in the history of a Kansas preacher! There are lots of good brethren who come from N. Y., some from Vt. and every point of the compass. C[olby]. must first secure him a farm, and I want to travel constantly with Mr. L. and the brethren are very anxious I should, and C's family can live in our house in Sumner. There are three rooms below, large enough to live in, and two above, fixed for a stove. Mr. L. is now stretched on the floor, napping by my side and Irving is playing with Kitty. I do wish mother could ride in the cars, for I believe father could come out here, to take it fair and easy in the cars. When we went to Leavenworth, the other day, how many times we wished that father could see the splendid farms, princely residences. Corn is now 10 feet high, Mr. L. says, within two or three rods of my writing-table. There are 20,000 people at the mines, and hosts, en route there. O if Wilbur Heath only knew the benefit of getting a farm in Kansas now, he would be here in six weeks. We have had awful tornadoes here, that I think I wrote about. Mr. Bartholemew, [128] is now at our door, talking, looking of [over] the garden. he and his family came two years since from C[onnecticu]t. His home was formerly Hartford, Ct.-lives a neighbor, to us--a very worthy man. he would not be hired for a small sum, to leave Kansas. I have been through such awful trying scenes, I have never got quieted down, till since the war was over, to feel at home as much as I can. They are stealing horses almost daily throughout the Ter[ritory]. and many of the horse thieves have been caught some of them publickly horse-whipped, some imprisoned, and some, have had summary vengeance, meted out to them, in the shape of a lynch-law.

I think we shall have a great work of grace, on this charge this year. Shall soon commence camp-meetings, and protracted meetings-a camp meeting is at Baldwin City, where Charles lives, on


our College grounds, the 19th of Aug. We design to attend. I may not write to you again, till I start for N. H., my hands are so full. Ettie, I presume, will accompany me. I have just learned that a gentleman of this City, Mr. Wood, formerly of Boston, is going soon to N. E. it may be I may accompany him and not wait. [129] I'll see how soon he goes. What think you of the war in the East? [130] I am watching its progress with much interest for I am strongly convinced that is plainly foretold by Ancient Seers that is the "final struggle" the great Armageddon of the Apocalypse. We are now healthy,money is dreadful scarce-provisions plenty- Love to all: Answer this immediately.


Wed. Eve., July 13th 1859

Julia left this page blank for me to fill. Times in money matters are still hard with us, in Kansas. But the season has been good and we have the promise of an abundant harvest. There was quite a surplus last year, in some parts of the Territory, but where there was ten bushels, we judge from general appearances, there will be hundreds this year. The Winter wheat is harvested, a good crop, Oats & Spring wheat will be fit to cut in one & two weeks. It is looking fine. In some localities, the crops have been injured with several hail-storms, & wind. About ten miles from this, there is a region of country of perhaps ten miles square, the entire crop is nearly ruined. I wish you could take one round with me on my C[ircui]t. and see the almost endless fields of corn, wheat oats & potatoes; millet, hungarian grass and almost every thing of produce. Pikes Peak is not a failure-far FAR from it. See Greely's & Richardson letter. Richardson is from this town. Has just arrived here, bringing specimens of the precious metal with him. He gives most flattering reports of the success of the mines. It is doubtful when Julia will go to N. H. I would like to have her orate until next spring, & I would go with her, but cannot go before. We have some means, but it is not eas[i]ly to convert anything into money at this time. Hope to have all my temporal matters properly arranged this fall, and then I will write & let you know what I have. Father I wish you could see my garden every thing


growing luxuriously, such as Flint corn, sweet corn, Early "tucket" corn, two kinds of pop corn, broom corn. Three kinds of Irish potatoes. We have had several messes to eat, Sweet potatoes, Numberless kinds of squashes, pumpkins, lots of the finest mellons which will be ready for eating the first of August, Beans, Beats, Carrots, a fine lot of Cabbage, some with fine heads, this early, large enough to cook, Tomatoes, any quantity of Peas, a good supply, Thirteen Apple trees, Raspberries, (bore some this year) here and at Baldwin City, lots and lots of them, currents, 20 sets, & Gooseberries,-Bore some this year-Three grape vines, growing finely-A fine bed of Strawberries, Nameless other things. These are what I have in my garden here, All enclosed in a good picket fence. A good house nearly finished. A good stable, shed and hen-house. With a place for retirement, when it must be attended too! But enough of this for this time. I have a large C(ircui)t. one man with me, work enough for ten. I found local preachers to assist me. Our membership is small, the people have generally all they can do to live, but hope for better times. We have some precious seasons & are labouring & hoping for an outpouring of the Holy Ghost in all the land. I feel myself unworthy but I hope to win some souls to Christ in this far-off western world. Did I not love the work, & feel "woe is me if I preach not the gospel," I should have left this work long ago. My greatest "cross is" not to go into farming in Kansas, 'tis so inviting. The will of the Lord be done. . . .


P. S. I think Julia will go to N. H. about Oct. and stay till about New-Year's day. I hate to have her go without me. She may go in Sept. yet I can't tell.

SYLVAN COTTAGE, SUMNER, K. T., Sept. 26, '59

MESSRS. EDITORS [131] : Sumner is at this time, a general hospital, and we know not one family where some of the members have not been sick or are still sick. Bilious fevers, "fever and ague," and "congestive chills," of a very dangerous character, have universally prevailed in the community-the writer of this has been sick more or less for months past, with chills and fever, and is now not able to sit up but part of the time. Four summers have proved satisfactorily that our family can never get acclimated so as to enjoy health in Kansas only in the winter. Our entire family have been sick for months past, and Mr. LOVejoy is reduced very low, though we now


think him convalescent, and will recover, if he does not have a relapse. . . . Oh, ye who breathe the air of our own native hills! How has the weary invalid, envied your position for months past! When I have read the refreshing letters in the Democrat, from the White Mts. from that gem of New England Lakes, Winnipissiogee, and from the high regions, on the Penobscot River, and thought of your refreshing breezes, your cooling streams, amongst the mountains; oh, how we have longed to bathe our fevered brow and throbbing temples in those little rivulets that issue from the mountain-side, as in days of yore, or sit on the mossy bank and watch its ripplings over its pebbly bed, and not start with fear at every rustling leaf or moving spire of grass, lest a deadly serpent might be concealed beneath! Only one week ago we stopped to pick up (near our residence) some shavings where shingles had been made, and took up a serpent in our arms-a copperhead, we thought at a glance, but it escaped. Last May, the writer of this killed a monster of a rattlesnake, near our door-step, with ten rattles and a button, making it eleven years old.-No one else was on the premises at the time, but our little four-year-old boy.

Intelligence was received last week from our neighbors who are at the mines. The reports were of the most flattering character-miners in high spirits with plenty of provisions for the present, and were finding new "leads" in various directions to encourage them to believe that when the resources are fully developed they will equal the California mines in richness of deposit. Rev. Wm. H. Goode has organized two distinct Missions, at the mines, with Superintendents for each, and is now about returning to his family in Iowa.

Our new Wyandot Constitution is creating much stir among the Democrats and proslavery fire-eaters, but we think it will finally be adopted by a majority of the people. Provisions are very plenty in the Territory, but money distressingly scarce. Never have we seen such "hard times," in money-matters, as at the present; not even in "war-times." A man with a sick family and only one hundred dollars salary where five hundred are needed to be comfortable with, must of necessity think of his brethren who are faring better, though he does not repine at his lot, but blesses God, even though he may fall a martyr on Kansas soil that he has been enabled to do and suffer a little for the holy cause he would die for rather than forsake. It is very "hard times" in Kansas, with all ministers, who are not supported by "Missionary Societies," or contributions from


the States, and we receive but $100 the present year, and no prospect of receiving any more, unless the Lord opens the hearts of some of our good brethren in the East to make some small remittances.

Two anonymous letters have been received in Sumner, threatening the people with burning the town, for "Free-State-ism." Soon after the first was received, Messrs. Woods' extensive wagon manufactory was consumed, engine, wagons, tools and all, an entire loss of $19,000-$5,000 insurance. The second letter: "Take this as a warning, and prepare for something greater."-Lesslie's store was set on fire, but the fire was extinguished without damage. This was tho't to be a "pique" of some private individual.-Both letters may prove a hoax. Messrs. Woods design to rebuild on a larger scale. Religious matters in the Territory are in a prosperous condition. Large accessions to the M. E. Church.


SYLVAN COTTAGE, SUMNER, K. T., Oct. 6, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [132] :-We some time since received a refreshing letter from New Bedford, Mass., with the initials "C. P. H." appended thereto, and our prayer is, "that God will abundantly bless the writer," (whoever it may be,) and when our appointed task on earth is finished, bring our glorified spirits to enjoy the rest of the "faithful over a few things," according to his own promise. We had fondly hoped that the ushering in of the first autumnal month would find us in the dear old paternal mansion where our eyes first beheld the light of day; but when our plans were all matured, a merciless despot, (with whose absolute power of control over us we had been contending for weeks, and vainly endeavoring to curtail his authority "to rule uncontrolled by foreign interference," or propitiate his favor by any "nostrum," we have found in searching through the labyrinths of the whole "Materia Medica" (of patent medicines,) including even "quinine" which is the summum bonum, or one of the indispensables in Kansas life) seized us with relentless grasp in his trembling arms, and the experience of a convalescent can alone express the relief obtained when a compromise was effected, and a pledge given to "suspend hostilities for a season," on condition "that every" minutia in the "pacification measures" should be daily and "strictly adhered to." The suffering subjects of this ubiquitous tyrant, with shaking limbs and livid countenances, might have been, or may still be seen, in almost every dwelling in Sumner, or thread


ing our streets, with the thermometer in the neighborhood of 90 deg., shivering as in mid-winter, or groups at the door of some druggist, discussing the merits of a "new and certain cure for fever and ague."-"The great secret out at last."-Ho! ye afflicted ones, give attention, as we rehearse its wondrous merit!-"Ward's telegraph tonic, warranted to cure," but to the dismay of the retailer, the patient still shakes on!

Sir, our whole family, that comprise the home-circle, and those of them who are connected with other families, have been thus afflicted, and Mr. Lovejoy, for nearly seven weeks, has been lingering with a low bilious fever; he is now able to walk about the premises a little, but we fear his days for hard labor in the itinerancy are forever over; he is greatly reduced, and his nervous system, and head are seriously affected. When the thermometer ranged upwards of 100 deg., in July, and scarcely a breath of air, the weather was so sultry, he was shaking with ague. The 30th of August he went to a camp meeting at Oskaloosa, 30 miles from Sumner, and in the second attempt to preach he was compelled by increasing illness to leave the "stand" for the nearest house, where he remained weeks very sick.

Now, Mr. Editor, if any one would be benefited by noting down some of the symptoms attending this "bane of Kansas life," they are at your service. Great lassitude, and morbid sensation of languor, preceded by a constant disposition to yawn, the extremities becoming cold, bones aching, limbs shaking, the blood leaving the surface, rushes to the central organs with congestive violence, then fever follows; the blood rushes to the surface again, in another effort to expel the irritating poison, through that great excretory the skin; it fails in this, and abandons the attempt, exhausted by the violent paroxysm, stomach heaving, brain whirling, temples throbbing, as though the veins might burst with the excess of blood in its upward tendency, nausea increasing, till with a violent retch the last particle of food is ejected therefrom, succeeded by a copious hemorrhage of bile, and the patient sinks away in a kind of dreamy unconsciousness, from which he is aroused by the reflection, "that in twenty-four hours, he must be put over the same rough road, with less strength to endure it!" A neighbor has been thus afflicted now about five months; others succeed in breaking up the "chill" in a few days or weeks. As cold weather approaches, sickness will abate.

Matters in the Territory religiously are very encouraging. There have been many camp meetings holden in various places, that have resulted in large accessions to the M. E. Church. A number of the


preachers on this district are now sick, but the work does not stop in consequence thereof. In this extensive field of labor, embracing an area of fifty miles, Mr. L's. colleague, aided by the local ministry, is still "pressing the battle to the gate," and another series of meetings commences tomorrow on "Independence Creek," settled mostly by Pennsylvanians. A beautiful church has been completed and dedicated at Atchison, four miles from Sumner, that will compare in taste and finish, favorably with most country churches in New England, and also one of brick, that will soon be completed at Leavenworth, in which the next session of our Conference is to be holden, in the official appointment says, "April," but the preachers hope to have the session some time in March. Would not it be a refreshing relief from the every-day drudgery of the editorial sanctum to take a three day's excursion at that time, as the cars will run to Atchison, within 24 miles of Leavenworth; recently a. man came from Boston to Lawrence, K. T., in four days.

Baker University has commenced the fall term of the Preparatory Department under very favorable auspices, with a faculty of five teachers, viz: Rev. Werter R. Davis, D. D., President and Professor of Mental and Moral Sciences, and Biblical Literature; Rev. B. R. Cunningham, A. B., Professor of Mathematics and Natural Science; Thos. H. Parker, A. M., M. D., Professor of Ancient Languages and Literature; Mrs. M. R. Davis, Governess and Teacher of Instrumental Music and Ornamental Branches; Miss Mary C. Dunn, Teacher in Preparatory Department. An able corps from whom much is expected in meeting the great educational want of this rapidly growing country, and sustaining the reputation of the University. The Preparatory school for "Lawrence University," at Lawrence, is also in successful operation. The walls of "Bluemont Central College," at Manhattan, will soon be completed, if energy on the part of those who have projected the noble work, will accomplish the object; and, sir, we doubt whether the sun ever shone on a more enchanting prospect than the extensive panorama to be seen from the bluff on which the structure is going up. Success to those noble spirits who have more than once left their loved ones in Kansas, and traveled the distance that intervenes between the Kaw and Big Blue River and the broad Atlantic, to get funds for this praiseworthy object. The "corner stone" for a college edifice, under the patronage of the M. E. Church, has been laid with appropriate exercises, at Ottumwa, K. T., the building for Preparatory School to be completed the present fall. The "miners" are returning by


"Express," every coach is full, and come into Atchison now weekly, returning to spend the winter. Fifty-five thousand dollars was brought by "Express," to Atchison the last two trips. Crops of various kinds are coming in very heavy, but money is so very scarce that times are hard notwithstanding, and property unsaleable.

The election votes for the "Wyandott Constitution" were cast the 4th inst., and as far as the returns have been received, a large majority will go in favor of it. "Atchison precinct" is the strongest pro-slavery of any in this part of Kansas, and it gave a majority of one! We heard the booming of cannon along the river, that told us that free principles were triumphing, and pro-slavery subserviency was breathing its last gasp in Kansas. It is with no small degree of interest, Mr. Editor, that we from this great battle-field, where freedom and slavery have met in terrible collision, watched the weekly issues of the contest now raging between two D. D.'s who are measuring lances with the skill of pugilists; and, sir, to our mind, it is as clear as a sunbeam whose lance will be broken, keen-edged and elastic though it be, and poised by a veteran arm well skilled in all the tactics of controversial war. It needeth not a "prophet's ken" to predict who will be the vanquished one; for God and angels are on the opposite side, and all good men whose eyes are not dimmed by the mists of error and prejudice, that have been wreathing fantastic shapes in hobgoblin form, to frighten the timid into the belief that a disruption of the church will be the result if only one word, "slaveholding," is made the test-point of membership in said church. Now if slavery is the "corner stone" that binds this wondrous fabric together, would to God that it might be sundered and dispelled like the morning mists that lingers along the Missouri Valley when the "powerful king of day asserts his right." Thank Heaven that every Annual Conference does not see fit to follow in the wake or lead the same direction of the Southern Illinois Conference at its late session, with regard to a change in the rule on the slavery question. We believe there is still leaven enough in the M. E. Church to purify the whole lump, and this fermentation now going on will only throw off the scum and impure ingredients, that the effervescence of the substance brings to the surface. Our metaphors may not be happily conceived, but it is an important matter with us, that the M. E. Church, throughout her length and breadth, be purified thoroughly and forever from the contamination of slavery at the next General Conference.

Amen and amen.


[November 24, 1859.]

MR. EDITOR [133] :- . . . this is the first officially appointed Thanksgiving Day in the Kansas calendar. . . .

None will be led to infer that we approve of the measures that Brown and his coadjutors resorted to to attain their object; but the design to liberate slaves without the shedding of blood, I do most sacredly approve of, and speak this fearlessly, and would repeat the affirmation though the President of these United States and his Cabinet, and the whole power of Congress, and the federal troops with glittering bayonets surrounded me to appall me and dragoon me into submission to the powers that be. I never was considered intractable or stubborn, but Heaven helping me, I'll never yield the point in this matter of right, duty and conscience, which is as clear as a sunbeam, and flashing through the whole book of God, to aid the oppressed and downtrodden in any and every possible way, though my brethren in the same church may cry forbear, and desist from agitation. I bate slavery and its bitter fruits, and will do all I can for its destruction. Doctor, you will not fail to see that this little episode in the letter is in the singular, not plural number; others will in due time speak for themselves. I am talking far more than I intended to, but cannot unburden my mind in one short letter. In the winter of ,56, [John E.] Cook, of Harper's Ferry notoriety, lived the next door to us, in Lawrence, Kansas, and daily was a caller at our home. He kept bachelor quarters with a Capt. Houghton, now dead, who was a brother of Mrs. Appleton, of Boston, a family of great wealth. Cook was standing side by side, not far from Lawrence, with the young and deeply lamented Stewart, of N. Y., when he was shot dead in cold blood by a "border ruffian." Cook raised his pistol to return the charge, but it missed fire, and the murderer fled. Cook employed much time that winter in shooting at targets so near our dwelling I was often fearful that some mischief might be occasioned by his carelessness. He appeared to us like a young man of good morals, and one who has been accustomed to good society. I do not think there is an individual now in Kansas who knew any thing of Brown's whereabouts or intentions. Poor man! driven to insanity by barbarous acts that would shame a Bedouin of the desert, or a Turk, or Moor of Algiers, and then instead of confining him in a lunatic asylum for his erratic course, he must expiate his un happy offense on the gallows. ,Twill be dark era for slavery when


freedom's champion is suspended in mid-air. We did not intend an eulogy on any of the condemned men. A certain judge in Kansas will have occasion to remember Kagi for many a year! Realf, too, we think, was among the victims; a fine writer both of prose and poetry. We intended to have given some incidents of families in Sumner upon whom the hard times are operating distressingly, who must suffer for food of the plainest kind the coming winter, owing to the scarcity of money, though crops have come in bountifully.

We thank our generous friends from a full heart for their generosity and kindness in responding to the note written by our dear brother Foster, unknown to Mr. L., but prompted by the sympathetic throbbings of his own great heart that is running over with kindly feelings. We dislike to speak of personalities, though sometimes compelled to do so; we have no present prospect of receiving $50 for the year from the circuit, and have $100 Missionary appropriation only. Mr. L.'s long and still continued affliction, with the necessary expenses, are bearing heavily upon us. We have property in our hands, if we could dispose of it at one half, or even one-third its value, but there is no sale for any property, owing to the scarcity of money, and all purchases go upon the cash system here-no credit.

If our incog. friend, who so often smiles upon us from the folds of a newspaper, or a wee bit of a note with good cheer included, and whose only token of recognition is received, would only give us a clue to her address, some of the postage stamps so kindly forwarded and opportunely received, should be returned adhering to letters full of kind wishes, directed to Boston, Mass. We would gratefully mention Bros. Haven and Howe, of Boston, and also Mrs. Ann E. Goodnow, of Sudbury, Mass. May each be crowned with eternal life.


SUMNER, Dec. 1, 1859.

The late panic at Harper's Ferry is but the introduction or preface to the first chapter, the finis of which will be like the reign of terror in France, when floods of blood rolled through the streets; we awfully fear, but do not predict this, for we claim not the character of a prophetess, or a lineal descendant in that line. May God preserve his own who flee to him for refuge, from the gathering storm that will ere long burst upon our devoted land. [134]



SUMNER, KANSAS, Dec. 2, 1859.

MR. EDITOR [135] : . . . As an individual member of the M. E. Church, I would throw every energy of an ardent, impassioned nature into one petition to the next General Conference, soon to be assembled in Buffalo, New York, and that petition should be for the slave's sake, for the church's sake, aye, for Christ's sake, regard our prayers, and let the M. E. Church throughout her length and breadth, be now and forever purified from the plague spot of oppression, the sin of American slavery. Tell us not, sir, that we are insane, Brown-like on this subject, and have only one all-absorbing monomaniacal idea. You, Mr. Editor, and those who like yourself (we say it with great deference) who plead "no change in the rule on the slavery question," need only for one year to see what we have seen, and feel what we have felt for well nigh five years in Kansas life, and you too would join in our prayer in struggling against and contending with a spirit that cherished and patronized this accursed system. The plural "we," embraces the entire noble band who have unflinchingly and manfully faced danger and scorned emoluments tendered by a foul administration where principle was concerned. We hate slavery and its bitter fruits with an undying hatred, and we have no doubt but that there will be a strong voice uttered by the Kansas delegates for a change in the rule. Of course, we have no authority to make this statement, but our individual belief, and could each member of the M. E. Church in Kansas have the privilege of expressing his sentiments next May, there would be one continuous voice, louder than the thunders of Luther, that shook the Vatican at Rome, and made Pope Leo X tremble on his impious seat, crying, "Change the rule, and hereafter no slaveholding be allowed in the M. E. Church." In vain would our enemies answer back, "Silence that cannonading." . . .



DEAR BRO. WEBER [136] :-. . . We have seen "hard times," we have been foolish enough to think, in the early morn of our itinerating from place to place to cultivate "Immanuel's ground," receiving one year only forty dollars, all told, as our annual salary, and another year only two hundred dollars, but either of those years would not compare with the present in "trials of our faith." Mr. Lovejoy has been sick since July, and when we began to be encouraged that the power of the disease was broken and he would speedily recover, our hopes were all frustrated, when day before


yesterday he lay stupid with the "dumb ague," which is far harder to cure than the "shaking ague," our little boy having had it five months, and no medicine favorably affected the disorder.

Our Conference year closes the 15th of next March, and we have received this year, as yet, but one dollar and seventy cents from our people, in cash, and only five dollars in every other article, and have no prospect of receiving five dollars more for the year, our people are so poor-we have $100 Missionary appropriation-and, sir, there is to-day a greater scarcity of the necessaries of life in Sumner than I have before seen in any community during the almost five years I have been in Kanzas. Provisions are all very plenty,-but people have no money to buy with. People in general here do not buy land, but rent houses of the "Sumner Co.," rent being so low, and the farmers part with all they can at a low rate to raise a little money, which is so distressingly scarce. Mr. Lovejoy was sick [torn copy] weeks away from home-at one place a Methodist brother and his Methodist wife charged him [torn copy] per day during the whole of his sickness under their hospitable (?) roof, and the physician's charges were very high. 'Tis a dark day with us temporally, Br. Weber, but we do not despair. Light is beginning to dawn on us, as you will see by "Zion's Herald," and its excellent, noble spirited Editor has our united prayers that he may never want a "friend in need," and find that want unsupplied.

Two years ago the property held in our hands we regarded as a competence, with economy; but the same property is to-day unsaleable, or would not sell for one third of its value, and we have been paying 50 and are still paying 30 and 25 per cent interest. We hope the financial crisis has presented the worst feature it has to present in Kanzas.

Many families in Sumner will suffer for food of the coarsest kind this winter, and one week's sickness of a laboring father must bring great wretchedness on those dependent on his daily labor.

Corn is 20 cts. per bushel, flour $7 and $8 per bbl., butter 30 cts. per pound, cheese 20 cts., fresh pork 51/2 cents, apples, green, $2 per bbl., dried $4, beans 75 cts and $1 per bushel. May the hungry mouths be fully supplied.

In great haste,-one who daily thinks of the dear, old Granite State.


[Part Five, the Concluding Installment, Will Appear in the May, 1948, Issue]


104. The Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis.
105. The first issue of The Kansas Messager, Baldwin, was dated January 1, 1859, and was published by J. W. Still.
106. The gold rush.
107. The Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis.
108. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
109. The continental divide was the western boundary of Kansas during its territorial period, 1844-1801, and Denver and Pikes Peak were both in western Kansas.
110. Herald, Boston, Mass.
111. Possibly a typographical error, for President Buchanan offered a reward of $250 for the arrest of John Brown.-D. W. Wilder, The Annals of Kansas (Topeka, 1886), pp. 245, 251; Frank W. Blackmar, Kansas-A Cyclopedia of State History . . . (Chicago, 1912), v. 2, pp. 730-732.
112. "Battle of the Spurs." Blackmar, op. cit., v. 2, pp. 730-732.
113. A Lawrence citizen who contributed toward the preparation of the caravan, informed the bandits of its departure.-Theodore Gardner, An Episode in Kansas History: The Doy Rescue," Kansas Historical Collections, v 17 pp 852-854; Wilder, op. cit., pp 252, 259
114. They were only about 12 miles from Lawrence when they were captured.--The Narrative of John Doy of Lawrence, Kansas (New York, 1860), p. 25.
115. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
116. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass-
117. Gov. Charles Robinson is not mentioned as being at the trial. Attorney-General Alson C. Davis and ex-Gov. Wilson Shannon were present to defend the Doys.-The Narrative of John Doy, pp. 74-77; James B. Abbott, "The Rescue of Dr. John W. Doy," Kansas Historical Collections, v. 4, p. 314. At the trial on March 20 an application for a change of venue to St. Joseph was made and was granted by the judge.-The Narrative of John Doy, p. 77.
118. On July 23, 1859, Dr. Doy was rescued from jail in St. Joseph by men from Lawrence.-Ibid., pp. 110-113.
119. Dr. Doy wrote: "All the adults, except two, showed my son their free papers- All had them except those two, whom we knew to be free men. . . . They had both been employed as cooks, at the Eldridge House, in Lawrence."-Ibid., p.24.
120. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
121. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
122. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
123. The Sumner Gazette.
124. The Rev. Daniel Foster came to Kansas as a Unitarian missionary.-Kansas State Historical Society, "Biographical Circulars A-L, v. 1.
125. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
126. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H.
127. Sarah was Julia's sister-in-law.
128. Possibly E. W. Bartholomew, a stone mason, who was listed in the census of 1860 as living in Sumner. He was born in Vermont.
129. Julia Lovejoy did not go to New Hampshire at this time. When the Rev. Mr. Lovejoy was transferred to the Vermont conference of the Methodist church they both went East in August of 1860 and did not return to Kansas until March, 1862.
130. This was probably the war between Austria and Sardinia which began in April, 1859. Napoleon III of France soon entered on the side of Sardinia.
131. The Independent Democrat, Concord, N. H., October 13, 1859.
132. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
133. Zion's Herald, Boston, Mass.
134. The paper which published this article has not been identified.
135. The Central Christian Advocate, St. Louis.
136. The paper which published this article has not been identified.