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Virtual- Kansas Museum of History - Virtual Museum After Hours

The Second Trail of Tears:  Muscogee Exodus to Kansas (1861)

In 1861 a group of Mvskoke (Muscogee) people sought escape from Confederate forces by relocating to Kansas. Their journey is known as the “Trail of Blood on Ice.”  The efforts of Mvskoke people, lead by Chief Opothleyahola, to reach Fort Row during the harsh winter, ended in the deaths of around 2,000 Mvskoke in Southeast Kansas. Sarah Deer, an enrolled citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma, shares the story of this journey.

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